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2018年湖北成人学位英语考试冲刺试题及答案四

一、词汇和语法(1-20)

1.It is obvious that this new rule is applicable to everyone without _____.

A.exception

B.exclusion

C.modification

D.substitution

答案:A

[译文] 很明显,这条规定适用于任何人,没有例外。

[解析] Without exception为固定搭配,表示“毫无例外,无一例外”。Exclusion表示“排除,排外”;modification的意思是“更改,修正”;substitution表示“替代”。

2.Last night he saw two dark _____ enter the building, and then there was the explosion.

A.features

B.figures

C.sketches

D.images

答案:B

[译文] 昨天晚上他看见两个黑影进了大楼,然后就发生了爆炸。

[解析] Feature 表示“特征,特点”;sketch的意思是“素描,梗概,草图”;image表示“形象”;而figure表示“外形,轮廓,体型”,符合上下文。

3.Faced with rapid inflation and _____ international and home markets, many firms have declared bankrupt.

A. lessening

B. shortening

C. shrinking

D. withdrawing

答案:C.。考查近义动词的语义辨析。各选项的意思及用法分别是:选项A.lessening减少,减轻,侧重指程度、重要性等的减轻。如:The defeat lessened our chances of winning the championship.此次失败使我们夺冠的希望变得更加渺茫。lessen the burden of减轻负担;选项B.shortening缩短,变短,如The days are beginning to shorten.天开始变短了。shorten the gap between缩小……之间的差距;选项C.shrinking使收缩,缩小,减少,侧重指尺寸、大小等的变小。如:The number of students attending the lecture has shrunk.听讲座的学生人数减少了。Will this soap shrink woolen clothes?这种肥皂会使羊毛衣服缩水吗?选项D. withdrawing收回,撤退,撤销,如:After awhile, he withdrew his proposal.过了一会儿,他撤回了他的提议。根据题意可判断出选项C.应为正确答案。全句意思是“面对通货膨胀和日益缩小的国际国内市场,许多公司都已宜布破产”。

4.We'd better eliminate junk foods from our kitchen and keep a variety of high-quality foods _____ at all times.

A. available

B. desirable

C. enormous

D. numerous

答案:A.。考查形容词语义环境。四个选项的意思分别是:选项A.available现成可使用的,在手边的,可利用的;选项B.desirable称心如意的,值得有的,如I envy Jane because her job is so desirable.我很羡慕简,因为她有一份很称心的工作。选项C.enormous巨大的,极大的,庞大的;选项D.numerous许多的,很多的,如:This is a conclusion he has drawn from numerous facts.这是他从很多事实当中得出的结论。根据题干可判断出选项A.应为正确答案。全句的意思为“我们应清除厨房里的垃圾食品,而使各种高质量的食物随手可及”。

5.The purpose of your resume is to _____ enough interest in you to have an employer contact you for an interview.

A. assemble

B. generate

C. yield

D. gather

答案:B.。考查动词的语义辨析。各选项的意思分别是:选项A.assemble意为“集合,聚集,召集;装配”,如:The whole school assembled in the main hall.全校学生在大礼堂集合。Before you assemble the model plane, read the instructions.在你组装模型飞机前,先读说明书。选项B.generate意为“生成,产生(光、热、电等.;引起(兴趣等.”,如:News of the Queen's visit is generating a lot of excitement.女皇来访的消息使大家感到非常兴奋。选项C.yield意为“生产,产生(利润、回报等.;投降,屈服”,如:His business yields big profits.他的生意利润丰厚。选项D.gather意为“聚集,集合;收集,采集”,如:Many people gathered in the town square.很多人聚集在市政广场。该题需注意选项B.和选项C.在搭配上的区别。根据题意,选项B.应为正确答案。全句意思为是“简历就是要充分引起雇主对你的兴趣,并达到进一步联系面试的目的”。

6.Some concepts may be difficult to grasp chiefly because they may be unfamiliar or _____ ideas, opinions which we already hold.

A. in accordance with

B. in conflict with

C. in favor of

D. in response to

答案:B.。考查介词短语的语义。四个选项的意思分别是:选项A.in accordance with依照,根据;选项B.in conflict with与……相冲突;选项C.in favor of支持,赞同;选项D.in response to作为对……的反应。根据题意可判断出选项B.为正确答案。全句的意思为“一些观念很难让人领会主要是因为我们对其不熟悉或者是因为与我们原有的观点相矛盾”。

7.The city government has determined to get _____ with people who try to escape paying taxes.

A. rough

B. tough

C. rigid

D. bold

答案:B.。考查形容词语义及搭配。能与介词with搭配的只有选项B.tough,get tough with/on sb.意为“对……采取坚决态度;对……采用强硬手段”。其余选项的意思分别是:选项A.rough意为“粗糙的;粗野的,粗暴的;粗略的,大致的”;选项C.rigid(行为观点等.严格的,死板的,不易改变的;选项D.bold意为“勇敢的,无畏的;冒失的,鲁莽的”。全句的意思是“政府部门决心采取强硬手段来惩治偷税人员”。

8.Human beings are superior to animals _____ they can use language as a tool to communicate.

A. for which

B. in which

C. in that

D. for that

答案:C

详解:答案为C。in that表示“因为,既然”.

9.Do you know the name of that _____ insect?

A. funny, little, red, mosquito-like

B. little, funny, mosquito-like, red

C. red, little, funny, mosquito-like

D. mosquito-like, red, little, funny

答案:A

详解:答案为A。本题考核修饰语的排列顺序:限定词—数词—一般描绘性形容词—表示大小、形状的形容词—表示年龄、新旧的形容词—表示色彩的形容词—表示国籍、地区、出处的形容词—表示物质、材料的形容词—表示用途、类别的形容词—被修饰名词。了解个大概顺序,如果记不得,只有读几遍凭语感来选择。

10.The time has come _____ we make extensive use of nuclear energy.

A. When

B. while

C. as

D. since

答案:A

详解:答案为A。when引导的定语从句修饰time,有时为了使句子平衡,也就是使主语不必过长,而把定语从句或同位语从句后置于谓语之后。如:The news came that our team won the match.

11.Professor Black and professor Smith will _____ in giving the class lectures.

A. alter

B. change

C. alternate

D. differ

BestAnswer:C

详解:答案为C。alternate指“交替”;alter指“改变”。

12.We drive our car fast and soon _____ other cars on the road.

A. oversee

B. overtake

C. overrun

D. override

答案:B

详解:

【译文】我们开得很快,一会儿就超越了公路上的其他汽车。

【注释】overtake“追上,赶上,超过”。oversee“俯瞰;监督,监视”。overrun“溢出;(侵略军.横行于”。override“奔越过,践踏过;制服,压倒”。

13.Are there any other factors that might affect the development of a child ______ education and innate inability?

A. apart from

B. away from

C. far from

D. but for

答案:A

详解:应选A项。

apart from除……之外,away from远离,far from 远非,but for要不是。

14.I would never have encouraged you to go into this field _____ it would be so hard for you.

A. had I known

B. and I had known

C. should I know

D. but I knew

答案:A

详解:应选A项。

此句为虚拟语气,如果条件从句中包含有一个助动词,可把if省略,这时助动词应放在主语前面。

句意为:要是我知道这件事情对你如此之难,我就不会鼓励你进入这个领域。

15.Reading is to the mind _____ food is to the body.

A. what

B. that

C. similar

D. which

答案:A

详解:应选A项。

what是关系代词,A is to B what C is to D,A对于B之间的关系犹如C对于D。

句意为:读书对于大脑来说就像食物对于身体一样。

16.Jane's _____ for gardening is evident by all of these beautiful flowers.

A. acquaintance

B. familiarity

C. achievement

D. enthusiasm

答案:D

详解:应选D项。

enthusiasm热衷,狂热,acquaintance相识,familiarity熟悉,achievement成就,功绩。

句意为:从这些漂亮的花可以明显看出简对园艺的热衷。

17.In the 1850's Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" became the best seller of the generation, _____ a host of imitators.

A. inspiring

B. inspired

C. inspired by

D. to inspire

答案:A

详解:应选A项。分词短语做状语。句意为:19世纪50年代,斯托的《汤姆叔叔的小屋》成为30年来的畅销书,因而激起了一大群伪造者。

18.They have made a _____ plan to build a suspension bridge over the river.

A. bald

B. bound

C. bold

D. bare

答案:C

详解:应选C项。

bold大胆的,bald光秃的,bound被束缚了的,bare赤裸的;无遮盖的。

句意为:他们已做出了一个大胆的计划要在这条河上建一所吊桥。

19.Her humorous remarks seemed _____, but were in fact carefully prepared beforehand.

A. precise

B. blank

C. spontaneous

D. bold

答案:C

详解:应选C项。

spontaneous自发的;自然产生的,precise精确的;准确的,blank空白的;空着的,bold大胆的。

句意为:她的幽默的评论看起来好像很自然,但是实际上是事先认真准备好的。

20.Are there any other factors that might affect the development of a child _____ education and innate inability?

A. apart from

B. away from

C. far from

D. but for

答案:A

详解:应选A项。

apart from 除……之外,away from 远离,far from 远非,but for 要不是。

句意为:除了教育和先天的不足,还有什么其他因素会影响一个孩子的发展?

二、阅读理解(21-40)

When a consumer finds that an item she or he bought is faulty or in some other way does not live up to the manufacturer' s claim for it, the first step is to present the warranty(保单), or any other records which might help, at the store of purchase. In most cases, this action will produce results. However, if it does not, there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction.

A simple and common method used by many consumers is to complain directly to the store manager. In general, the “higher up” the consumer takes his or her complaint, the faster he or she can expect it to be settled. In such a case, it is usually settled in the consumer' s favour, assuming he or she has a just claim.

Consumers shoud complain in person whenever possible, but if they cannot get to the place of purchase, it is acceptable to phone or write the complaint in a letter.

Complaining is usually most effective when it is done politely but firmly, and especially when the consumer can demonstrate what is wrong with the item in question. If this cannot be done, the consumer will succeed best by presenting specific information as to what is wrong, rather than by making general statements. For example, “The left speaker does not work at all and the sound coming out of the right one is unclear” is better than “This stereo(立体声音响)does not work.”

The store manager may advise the consumer to write to the manufacturer. If so, the consumer should do this, stating the complaint as politely and as firmly as possible. But if a polite complaint does not achieve the desired result, the consumer can go a step further. She or he can threaten to take the seller to court or report the seller to a private or public organization responsible for protecting consumers' rights.

21.When a consumer finds that his purchase has a fault in it, the first thing he should do is to ______.

A. complain personally to the manager

B. threaten to take the matter to court

C. write a firm letter of complaint to the store of purchase

D. show some written proof of the purchase to the store

答案:D

22.If a consumer wants a quick settlement of his problem, it' s better to complain to ______.

A. a shop assistant

B. the store manager

C. the manufacturer

D. a public organization

答案:B

23. The most effective complaint can be made by ______.

A. showing the faulty item to the manufacturer

B. explaining exactly what is wrong with the item

C. saying firmly that the item is of poor quality

D. asking politely to change the item

答案:B

24. The phrase “live up to” (Para. 1, Line 2)in the context means ______.

A. meet the standard of

B. realize the purpose of

C. fulfil the demands of

D. keep the promise of

答案:A

25. Tthe passage tells us ______.

A. how to settle a consumer' s complaint about a faulty item

B. how to make an effective complaint about a faulty item

C. how to avoid buying a faulty item

D. how to deal with complaints from customers

答案:B

How can we get rid of garbage? Do we have enough energy sources to meet our future energy needs?

These are two important questions that many people are asking today. Some people think that man might be able to solve both problems at the same time. They suggest using garbage as an energy source, and at the same time it can save the land to hold garbage.

For a long time, people buried garbage or dumped (倾倒) it on empty land. Now, empty land is scarce. But more and more garbage is produced each year. However, garbage can be a good fuel to use. The things in garbage do not look like coal, petroleum, or natural gas; but they are chemically similar to these fossil (化石) fuels. As we use up our fossil fuel supplies, we might be able to use garbage as an energy source.

Burning garbage is not a new idea. Some cities in Europe and the United States have been burning garbage for years. The heat that is produced by burning garbage is used to boil wa-

ter. The steam that is produced is used to make electricity or to heat nearby buildings. In Paris, France, some power plants burn almost 2 million metric tons of the cities garbage each year. The

amount of energy produced is about the same as would be produced by burning almost a half mil- lion barrels of oil.

Our fossil fuel supplies are limited. Burning garbage might be one kind of energy source that we can use to help meet our energy needs. This method could also reduce the amount of gar-bage piling up on the earth.

26.What two problems can man solve by burning garbage?

A.The shortage of energy and air pollution.

B.The shortage of energy and the land to hold garbage.

C.Air pollution and the shortage of fossil fuel.

D.Air pollution and the shortage of land to hold garbage.

答案:B

27.Which of the following is not the result of burning garbage?

A.The garbage burned is turned into fossil fuels.

B.The heat produced is used to boil water.

C.The steam produced is used to make electricity.

D.The steam produced is used to heat buildings.

答案:A

28.According to the passage which of the following is NOT true?

A.About 2 million metric tons of garbage is burned in some power plants in Pads, France each year.

B.In a modem society, more and more garbage is produced each year.

C.Using garbage is a good way to solve the problem of energy shortage.

D.It will be too expensive to use garbage as an energy source.

答案:D

29.What is the author‘s attitude?

A.Delighted.

B.Sad.

C.Agreeing.

D.Disagreeing.

答案:C

30.The best title for the passage may be

A.Garbage and the Earth

B.Fossil Fuel and Garbage

C.Land and Garbage

D.Garbage——Energy Source

答案:D

Some psychologists(心理学家) maintain that mental acts such as thinking are not performed in the brain alone. but that one‘ s muscles also participate. (76) It may be said that we think with our muscles in somewhat the same way that we listen to music with our bodies.

You surely are not surprised to be told that you usually listen to music not only with your ears but with your whole body. Few people can listen to music without moving their body or. more specifically. some part of their body. Often when one listens to a symphonic concert on the radio. he is attracted to direct the orchestra (乐队) even though he knows there is a good conductor on the job.

Strange as this behavior may be. there is a very good reason for it. One cannot derive all possible enjoyment from music unless he participates. so to speak. in its performance. The listener"feels" himself into the music with more or less noticeable motions of his body.

The muscles of the body actually participate in the mental process of thinking in the same way. but this participation is less obvious because it is less noticeable.

31. Some psychologists think that thinking is

A. not a mental process

B. more of a physical process than a mental action

C. a process that involves our entire bodies

D. a process that involves the muscles as well as the brain

答案:D

32. The process of thinking and that of listening to music are similar in that

A. both are mental acts

B. muscles participate in both processes

C. both processes are performed by the entire body

D. we derive equal enjoyment from them

答案:B

33. Few people are able to listen to familiar music without

A. moving some part of their body

B. stopping what they are doing to listen

C. directing the orchestra playing it

D. wishing that they could conduct music properly

答案:A

34. The listener‘s way of" feeling" the music is

A. the unnoticed motion of his muscles

B." participating" in the performance

C. bending an ear to the music

D. being the conductor of the orchestra

答案:B

35. According to the passage. muscle participation in the process of thinking is

A. deliberate

B. Apparent

C. indistinct

D. impressive

答案:C

In what now seems like the prehistoric times of computer history, the e_arly post-war era( 战后时期 ), there was a quite widespread concern that computers would take over the world from man one day. Already today, less than forty years later, as computers are relieving us of more and more of the routine tasks in business and in our personal lives, we are facing with a less dramatic but also less foreseen problem. People tend to be over-trusting (过分信任) of computers and are re- luctant to challenge their authority. Indeed, they behave as if they were hardly aware that wrong buttons may be pushed, or that a computer may simply malfunction(失灵).

Obviously, there would be no point in investing(投入) in a computer if you had to check all its answers, but people should also rely on their own internal computers and check the machine when they have the feeling that something has gone wrong. Questioning and routine double checks must continue to be as much a part of good business as they were in pre-computer days. Maybe each computer should come with the following warning: for all the help this computer may provide, it should not be seen as a substitute for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.

36.What is the main purpose of this passage?

A.To look back to the early days of computers.

B.To explain what technical problems may occur with computers.

C.To discourage unnecessary investment in computers.

D.To warn against the blindness to the probable shortcomings of computers.

答案:D

37.The passage recommends those dealing with computers to ________

A.be reasonably doubtful about them

B.check all their answers

C.substitute them for basic thinking

D.use them for business purpose only

答案:A

38.An “internal computer” ( Para. 2 ) is ________

A.a computer used exclusively by one company for its own problems

B.a person‘ s store of knowledge and the ability to process it

C.the most up to date in home computer a company can buy

D.a computer from the post-war era which is very reliable

答案:B

39.The passage suggests that the present day problem with regard to computers is ________

A.challenging

B.psychological

C.dramatic

D.over-trusting

答案:D

40.It can be inferred from the passage that the author would disapprove of ________

A.computer science courses in high schools

B.businessmen and women who use pocket calculators

C.maintenance(连续不断) checks on computers

D.companies which depend entirely on computers

答案:D

三、完型填空(41-50)

Tourism has become a very big (41) . For Spain, Italy and Greece it is the largest (42) of foreign exchange, and even for Britain, it is the fourth. Faced with this hug new income, no government can afford to look (43) on the business ; questions of hotel bath rooms, beach umbrellas and ice-cream sales are now discussed by ministers of tourism with solemn expertise. Before the Second World War the tourist industry was widely regarded as being unmanly and stupid But tourism has become a new industry, as trade business used (44) ;in Spain, Italy,. Greece and much of Eastern Europe, new road systems have opened up in the country, first to tourists, and then to industry and locals.

Much of tourism is a nationalized industry, a (45) part of national planning. In a place west of Marseilles, the French government is killing mosquitoes and building six big vacation places to (46) nearly a million tourists.In Eastern Europe, a whole new seaside (47) has sprung up (48) the last few years: the governments have greatly (49) when tourists from the West (50) from half a million four years ago to nearly two million last year.

41.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A. firm   B.business   C. company   D. affair

答案:B

42.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A. factor   B. resource   C. source   D. cause

答案:C

43.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A. up   B. at   C. for   D. down

答案:D

44.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A.be done   B.done   C.to do   D.to doing

答案:C

45.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A. key   B. minor   C.linking   D. questioning

答案:A

46.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A. attract   B. pull   C.hold   D. contain

答案:A

47.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A.civilization   B.culture   C.writing   D.book

答案:B

48.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A.over   B. for   C. after   D. beyond

答案:A

49.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A. suffered   B.lost   C.invested   D.benefited

答案:D

50.请把最佳答案填入( )。

A. added   B. divided   C. reduced   D. multiplied

答案:D

四、翻译(51-55)

Thanks to the means of modern transportation and communication, the world is getting smaller. The whole world community appears to be no more than a large global village, where the people of different nations come together with different cultural backgrounds and values. (51 ) While engaging themselves in cultural exchange, they seek common development in a harmonious and respectful relationship.

(52) Cultural exchange is by no means a process of losing one's own culture to a foreign culture, but one of enriching each other's national cultures.

Through cultural exchange, different cultures can absorb and influence one another. We should adopt the principle of eliminating the false and retaining the true, discarding the dross and selecting the essential, exporting more and importing the best, and resisting corruptive influences. (53) I believe that different cultures can learn from each other's strengths to offset their own weaknesses and complement one another.

(54) While absorbing the essence of a foreign culture, we should not be content with imitation without creation. An obsession with simple imitation will sterilize creation, and as such it will be impossible for us to scale new heights in art and impossible to present to the world excellent works of our own creation. Simple imitation is by no means equivalent to novelty and originality. On the contrary, novelty and originality result from the combination of modern and traditional styles, the combination of the distinctive features of foreign countries and those of our own nation, and the combination of artistry and education.

( 55 ) The culture of a nation must withhold its own distinctive national characteristics in its extensive exchange with other cultures, and make contributions to the development of human civilization.

51.While engaging themselves in cultural exchange, they seek common development in a harmonious and respectful relationship.

答案:各国人民在文化交流中彼此尊重,和睦相处,共求发展。

52.Cultural exchange is by no means a process of losing one's own culture to a foreign culture, but one of enriching each other's national cultures.

答案:文化交流绝不是让外来文化吞没自己的文化,而是为了丰富各民族的文化。

53.I believe that different cultures can learn from each other's strengths to offset their own weaknesses and complement one another.

答案:我认为不同的文化可以取长补短,互为补充。

54.While absorbing the essence of a foreign culture, we should not be content with imitation without creation

答案:我们在吸取外国文化优秀成果的同时,不能满足于一味模仿的做法而没有创新。

55.The culture of a nation must withhold its own distinctive national characteristics in its extensive exchange with other cultures, and make contributions to the development of human civilization.

答案:在广泛的文化交流中,一个民族的文化必须保持本民族的鲜明特色,为人类文明的发展做出贡献。

五、写作(56)

Writing Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic

56.For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic "A Friend to Remember" . You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:

1.简要地介绍你的一位朋友:

2.你怀念他/她的原因。

答案:A Friend to Remember

Sophia was one of my best friends in college. She was a tall girl with big eyes and short hair. Her family was poor because her father died when she was still a child.In spite of this, she was very optimistic and never lost heart. She struck people as a strong-minded and self-confident girl. And that was why I admired her a lot. One of her favorite quotations was "tomorrow is another day" and she always encouraged herself with Scarlett's spirt when she was faced with difficulties.

We had a lot in common.We both liked singing, reading and shopping. Singing songs together with her was a lot of fun.I enjoyed my college life very much with her company.Now she is working in another city, and we hardly have any chance to see each other.However, she will always be my best friend.


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